Ginkgo biloba extract is a known cognitive enhancing herb. It is not clear how ginkgo is able to improve cognition, but it has been suggested, based on experimental evidence, that extracts of the herb provide significant antioxidant effects to the brain. This antioxidant effect may come from the high content of flavonoids present in the herb. Evidence suggests that combining ginkgo biloba with other cognitive enhancing supplements may improve the effects seen from gingko alone. For example, in one study, researchers administered 120 mg of ginkgo biloba, 120 mg of ginkgo biloba with phosphatidylserine or 120 mg of ginkgo biloba with phosphatidylcholine to a group of healthy adults. All three treatments were associated with improved calmness. In addition, the complexation of gingko with phosphatidylserine cause significant improvements in secondary and speed of memory, whereas the complexation of gingko with phosphatidylcholine caused more modest improvements in secondary memory.
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