Many people associate caffeine with nervousness and the development of anxiety. In the short term, this may be the case, and those with anxiety are advised to avoid excessive intakes of caffeine, particularly from coffee, unless habituated to the intake. However, long term caffeine and coffee consumption does not show an association with depression and may actually be protective of depressed mood. A number of studies have looked at the association between caffeine consumption and depression and coffee consumption and depression. One group of researchers performed a meta-analysis on the association between coffee and caffeine consumption with depression and found that both coffee and caffeine were significantly protective of depression. In another study, a similar association was found for consumption of coffee and caffeine with a reduced risk of depression in women. In yet another study, coffee was significantly associated with a reduced risk of depression, but no association was found for tea.
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